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WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen
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WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen

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WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semenГод выпуска: 2010

Автор: World Health Organization

Жанр: Andrology

Формат: PDF

Качество: OCR

Описание: This publication was produced by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR).

«Examination and processing of human semen»

SEMEN ANALYSIS

  1. Standard procedures
    • Introduction
    • Sample collection
    • Initial macroscopic examination
    • Initial microscopic investigation
    • Sperm motility
    • Sperm vitality
    • Sperm numbers
    • Routine counting procedure
    • Low sperm numbers: cryptozoospermia and suspected azoospermia
    • When an accurate assessment of low sperm numbers is not required
    • When an accurate assessment of low sperm numbers is required
    • Counting of cells other than spermatozoa
    • Sperm morphology
    • Staining methods
    • Examining the stained preparation
    • Morphology plates
    • Analysing a sperm morphology smear
    • Assessment of leukocytes in semen
    • Assessment of immature germ cells in semen
    • Testing for antibody coating of spermatozoa
  2. Optional procedures
    • Indices of multiple sperm defects
    • Panleukocyte (CD45) immunocytochemical staining
    • Interaction between spermatozoa and cervical mucus
    • Biochemical assays for accessory sex organ function
    • Computer-aided sperm analysis
  3. Research procedures
    • Reactive oxygen species
    • Human sperm-oocyte interaction tests
    • Human zona pellucida binding tests
    • Assessment of the acrosome reaction
    • Zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test
    • Assessment of sperm chromatin

SPERM PREPARATION

  1. Sperm preparation techniques
    • Introduction
    • General principles
    • Simple washing
    • Direct swim-up
    • Discontinuous density gradients
    • Preparing HIV-infected semen samples
    • Preparing testicular and epididymal spermatozoa
    • Preparing retrograde ejaculation samples
    • Preparing assisted ejaculation samples
  2. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa
    • Introduction
    • Semen cryopreservation protocols

QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Quality assurance and quality control
    • Controlling for quality in the andrology laboratory
    • The nature of errors in semen analysis
    • Minimizing statistical sampling error
    • The quality assurance programme
    • Laboratory procedures manual
    • Internal quality control
    • Statistical procedures for analysing and reporting within- and among-technician systematic errors
    • QC for percentages
    • Assessing Xbar and S charts
    • Statistical procedures for analysing and reporting among-technician variability
    • External quality control and quality assurance
    • Frequency and priority of quality control
    • Training

APPENDICES

  • Reference values and semen nomenclature
  • Equipment and safety
  • Microscopy
  • Stock solutions
  • Cervical mucus
  • Record forms for semen and cervical mucus analyses
  • Sampling errors and quality control
  • National external quality control programmes for semen analysis

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